As we bear witness to the curious social phenomena that occur as we approach the beginning of the third millennium Đ apocalyptic fears on the one hand and hopes for a sweeping societal transformation on the other it is only fitting that we reflect back on what was happening in the world as the second millennium began. And nowhere was the millennial spirit manifested more strikingly and creatively than in France in and around the year 1000.
In the period leading up to that year, France had been experiencing new levels of social disorder (failure of the monarchy, castellan "revolution") and an exceptionally powerful religious response to the breakdown of public order: millennial fervor unleashed waves of enthusiasm for Christianity, apostolic movements, mass pilgrimages, far-reaching ecclesiastical reforms and the first documented popular peace movement in history. As the old millennium passed away and the prophesied apocalyptic events failed to transpire, however, predictions shifted to the year 1033, which would mark a full millennium from the time of Christ's actual death on the cross. Accordingly, the years between 1000 and 1033 saw a second surge of reforms, pilgrimages and peace councils, not to mention an unprecedented commitment to the building of monumental ecclesiastical structures.
We invite you to join us on a very special journey of discovery, one that goes back a thousand years, into France as it existed a full millennium ago. We'll visit many of the country's key turn-of-the-millennium sites, exploring the ruins of medieval pilgrimage churches; wandering through some of the finest and best-preserved Romanesque cathedrals; touring the abbeys that spearheaded the religious reforms of the day; and viewing the treasured religious relics that were instrumental in attracting pilgrims in such vast numbers, and at the same time we will consider how the great products of subsequent centuries (eleventh to fourteenth) were related to the social turmoil and creativity of these years. Throughout our journey, we'll be accompanied by one of the worldŐs foremost experts on millennial studies and specialist of France at the turn of l'an mil, who will aid us in our search for insights into the mindset of a people touched by the special fears and hopes that these much-heralded years evoked, and to the colossal civilization to which the millennial generation gave birth. We hope you'll join us on our journey into another time and place into France in the year 1000.
STUDY LEADER: Dr. Richard Landes
Trained as a medieval historian, Dr. Richard Landesâ specialty is popular expectation leading up to and following the year 1000 AD. Dr. Landes has also been studying contemporary millennial manifestations over the past twenty-five years and offers a unique historical perspective for understanding current apocalyptic and millennial phenomena. He received his master's degree and Ph.D. from Princeton University in 1984 and also attended Harvard and the Ecole Normale Superieure in Paris. He has written articles for The New Republic and for Deolog, and his publications include Relics, Apocalypse and the Deceits of History: Ademar of Chabannes (989-1034) (1995) and The Peace of God: Social Violence and Religious Response in France around the Year 1000 (1992). He is a professor of medieval studies at Boston University and a fellow of the Open Society Institute. He is also co-founder and director of the Center for Millennial Studies at Boston University, an independent, non-profit research center committed to studying apocalyptic and millennial phenomena.
PROGRAM HIGHLIGHTS: á Seventeen-day/fifteen-night program, July 15 - 31, 2000
Scheduled round-trip economy-class air transportation from Boston to Paris and from Lyon to Boston
TOUR COSTS FROM BOSTON: á Special Boston University land/economy air package, per person double occupancy: $5495 á Single Room Supplement: $1005 á Group air credit, Boston/Paris/Lyon/Boston: $700 PARIS á Four nights at the Htel Regina á One full-day and one half-day sightseeing in Paris á Welcome cocktail reception with introduction by Dr. Richard Landes á Excursion to Amiens and Corbie á Excursion to Laon, Reims and La Ferte-Sous-Jouarre with winery tour and lunch in a wine cellar ORLEANS á One night at the Htel d'Arc á Visit to St. Aignan en route to Orleans á Sightseeing in Orleans on arrival with Loiret lunch cruise BOURGES á Two nights at the Htel d'Angleterre á Visit to St. Benoit, Chappelle d'Anguillon and St. Leonard de Noblat en route to Bourges á Sightseeing in Bourges POITIERS á One night at the Grand Htel á Visit to Deols and St. Savin en route to Poitiers LIMOGES á Three nights at the Htel Royal Limousin á Visit to eleventh- and twelfth-century chteau in the environs of Limoges á Sightseeing in Limoges, with visit to Monjovis á Sightseeing in Limoges with concert of medieval music á Excursion to Chalus, Rochechouart and Angoulme CONQUES á One night at the Htel Sainte Foy á Sightseeing in Conques on arrival with lecture by Dr. Landes LE PUY á One night at the Htel Regina á Sightseeing in Le Puy, with visit to St. Polignac LYON á Two nights at the Grand Htel Concorde á Sightseeing in Lyon on arrival á Excursion to Tournus and Cluny
EXCEPTIONAL VALUES: á Two medievalist experts, one in millennial studies, the other in art history accompanying throughout á First-class hotels based on twin-bedded rooms with bath or shower á Sixteen continental breakfasts, eight lunches and eight table dŐhote dinners with coffee or tea, and one cocktail reception á All transfers and handling of two pieces of luggage per person á All entrance fees, taxes and service charges á Extensive pre-tour cultural and practical guide á Travel bag, passport wallet, luggage tags, name tags, and packing tips
ITINERARY DAY 1: Saturday, July 15 Boston/Paris We depart Boston on an overnight flight to the City of Light. In-flight meals
DAY 2: Sunday, July 16 Paris Upon arrival in Paris, we check into the lovely Htel Regina. Later, we visit the Bibliotheque Nationale to view its magnificent collection of books and autographed manuscripts from the year 1000. We also visit the Quai d'Orsay Museum, designed as the Orlans railway station by architect Victor Laloux. Here we will view the romantic works of narrative artists recreating the great events of the year 1000. We enjoy a festive welcoming cocktail reception this evening, with an introduction by Dr. Richard Landes. B/C/D
DAY 3: Monday, July 17 Paris Today we explore two of the oldest churches in Paris. We begin at St. Julien le Pauvre, a tiny church built between 1165 and 1220 on the site of a succession of previous chapels. In the early twelfth century this church served as a burgeoning cathedral school, where Peter Abelard taught. We move on to the Church of St. Germain-des-Prs, which has its origins in the sixth century, when Childebert, son of King Clovis of the Merovingian dynasty, founded a Benedictine abbey on the site. The abbey was rebuilt in the eleventh century, and though fire later claimed most of it, one of the three original towers survives, and it contains one of the oldest belfries in France. Recently, Romanesque paintings were discovered on the triumphal arch of the St. Symphorien Chapel, adding to the abbey's status as one of the most interesting early Christian sites in Paris. We also visit the Muse des Monuments Franais. Housed in the Palais de Chaillot, this museum features models and sculptures of Romanesque and Gothic architecture from the first half of the millennium, providing a superb overview of medieval French art and architecture. Htel Regina B/L
DAY 4: Tuesday, July 18 Paris This morning, we embark on a full-day excursion to Amiens. Capital of Picardy, one of the most important communes (free cities) of the period and a major textile center since medieval days. It is home to the Cathdrale Notre-Dame d'Amiens, the largest in France. Begun in 1220 and completed in 1270, it was built to house the head of John the Baptist, which had been brought back from the Crusades in 1206 and can still be seen in the treasury. We go on to visit the historic Town Hall and then La Maison de Jules Verne, which documents the author's life and literary achievements. We end the day with a visit to nearby Corbie, a monastery of great importance in the Carolingian and early Capetian period. One of the great peace assemblies of 1033 took place in a field between Amiens and Corbie, and the assembly became an annual tradition that gradually evolved into a fair and a day of communal celebration. Htel Regina B/L/D
DAY 5: Wednesday, July 19 Paris Today's sightseeing takes us first to the medieval town of Laon, where, in 991, the bishop betrayed the last Carolingian pretender, handing him over to Hugh Capet, which ended the civil war of dynastic succession. The impressive Cathdrale Notre-Dame de Laon, finished in 1235, is on the site of a previous basilica. With its elaborate western faade, four-story nave, and huge thirteenth-century rose window, the cathedral is an excellent example of the early Gothic style. We go on to Reims, capital of the Champagne region, where we visit the magnificent Cathdrale Notre-Dame. Built on the site of the church in which the Frankish King Clovis was baptized in 496, this was where French kings were crowned from 815 to 1825. Next, we visit a local winery for lunch in the wine cellar and a sampling of the fine vintages made on the premises. This afternoon, we follow the Route du Champagne, wending our way through the vineyards for which the region is famous. We visit the hamlet of Jouarre outside La Ferte-sous-Jouarre, where in 1033 an earthquake led to a vast penitential assembly of people fearing the end of the world. We visit the townâs twelfth-century abbey, site of a Merovingian crypt, one of the oldest in France. The nearby Tour de lŐAbbaye de Jouarre boasts some well-preserved documents of interest to students of medieval history. Htel Regina B/L
DAY 6: Thursday, July 20 Paris/Orleans We depart Paris for Orleans this morning. In 1000, Orleans was as important a city as Paris and could have become the capital of the Capetian monarchy. The site of mass executions of Jews (1010) and heretics (1022), it has much to teach about the post-apocalyptic reaction of the authorities in the aftermath of 1000. We begin a full day of sightseeing with a visit to the Maison Jeanne d'Arc, built on the site where Joan of Arc, one of the great figures in French history, lodged in 1429 before her famous military victory. Later we enjoy a lunch cruise on the scenic Loiret, enhanced by the expertise of a resident lecturer. Next, we visit the Eglise St. Aignan, of special interest to scholars of pre-Romanesque art. Featuring one of FranceŐs earliest vaulted crypts, with some fine polychromatic capitals, its tenth- and eleventh-century aesthetic is a rare treat. We go on to the ornate Cathdrale Ste. Croix, where the trial of the heretics of 1022 took place. Htel d'Arc B/L
DAY 7: Friday, July 21 Orleans/Bourges Departing Orleans for Bourges, we stop at Fleury, home of the monastery of St. Benot-sur-Loire, to visit one of the finest Romanesque abbey churches in France. Built between 1067 and 1109, it boasts a remarkable choir floor, made up of a patchwork of multi-colored marble, a lovely nave and a belfry porch with intricately carved capitals depicting scenes from the Bible. At the turn of the millennium, this monastery was governed by Abbot of Fleury, one of the foremost theologians of his time and a major participant in the apocalyptic controversies of the day. The church is all that remains of a monastery founded in 650, named for St. Benedict, whose relics were brought here later in that century. Htel d'Angleterre B/L
DAY 8: Saturday, July 22 Bourges Our morning is devoted to exploring Bourgesâ Cathdrale Ste. Etienne, the widest and one of the most beautiful Gothic cathedrals in France, with extraordinary sculpted portals and brilliant thirteenth-century stained glass windows. The side aisles flanking the long nave soar sixty-five feet into the air, and the twelfth-century crypt is the largest in France. Our afternoon is free for individual activities. Htel d'Angleterre B/D
DAY 9: Sunday, July 23 Bourges/Poitiers En route to Poitiers this morning, we visit Deols on the Cher River, site of an impressive tenth-century castle from where Count Odo of Deols mounted a seigneurial army against the "peace militia" of the archbishop of the Limoges. The castle was later a part of Eleanor of Aquitane's dowry. Approaching Poitiers, we stop at the tiny village of St. Savin, to visit the eleventh-century abbey. Inside is a magnificent and unusual series of twelfth-century Romanesque frescoes illustrating the book of Revelation. Grand Htel B/L
DAY 10: Monday, July 24 Poitiers/Limoges This morning, we leave Poitiers for Limoges, ancient capital of Limousin. Approaching the city, we visit an eleventh- or twelfth-century chteau, the elaboration of a castle that played a key role in the Castellan wars of the year 1000. We go on to view the fourth-century crypt of the Abbaye St. Martial, which contains the sarcophagus of St. Martial, first bishop of Limoges. In 994, a plague of "holy fire" (ergot poisoning) broke out, and as a result of a miraculous healing, Limoges became one of the most important religious centers in France. Here the great historian of the millennium, Ademar of Chabannes, wrote his great corpus of autograph manuscripts, housed at the Bibliotheque Nationale. We continue to Monjovis, on a hilltop outside of Limoges, where the peace assembly of 994 took place. Htel Royal Limousin B/D
DAY 11: Tuesday, July 25 Limoges Our morning is free for individual pursuits, including shopping for the famed Limoges enamels and china. This afternoon, we visit the Museum of Enamels, where some of the city's legendary porcelain is displayed. We go on to the impressive Cathdrale de St. Etienne, built on the remains of an eleventh-century Romanesque church, part of whose crypt and belfry have survived. Begun in 1273, the Gothic cathedral was finally completed in 1890. Htel Royal Limousin B/L
DAY 12: Wednesday, July 26 Limoges Our full-day excursion takes us first to Chalus, where Richard Coeur de Lion was mortally wounded while besieging one of the town's two twelfth-century castles. We go on to Angoulme, its picturesque old section situated on a ridge overlooking the Charente Valley, site of murder, betrayal and witchcraft accusations in the court of the count in 1028. The ramparts of the Upper Town, now meant for strolling, provide stunning views, while quaint old streets invite visitors to explore. The much-celebrated twelfth-century Cathdrale St. Pierre dominates this section of the city. Begun in 1128, it was the fourth church to be constructed on what has been a religious site since the fifth century. Next, we visit Angoulme's monastery, where Ademar of Chabannes once lived. We travel along the celebrated Route Richard Coeur de Lion to the town of Chappelle d'Anguillon, its handsome Chteau de Bthune containing a fine eleventh-century keep. Htel Royal Limousin B/L
DAY 13: Thursday, July 27 Limoges/Conques We depart Limoges this morning driving via the medieval town of St. Leonard de Noblat, named for a famous confessor whose miracles, first attested to at the turn of the millennium, attracted pilgrims from far and wide. We visit the town's fine late-Romanesque church. Following a lecture by Dr. Richard Landes, we visit the superb Abbaye de Sainte Foy. In the ninth century, pilgrimage business flagged at this abbey until one of its monks stole the relics of Sainte Foy from the monastery in Agen, thereby attracting pilgrims and establishing the abbey as an important stop on the route to Santiago de Compostela. Sainte Foy's relics played an important role in regional peace assemblies and in 1012 attracted a northern cleric, Bernard of Angers, who wrote an extensive account of her miracles, and, in the process, compiled one of the most valuable social histories available. The abbey's treasury holds Western Europeâs most important collection of medieval and Renaissance gold work, some of it dating as far back as the ninth century. Its sculptured tympanum of the Last Judgment is a medieval masterpiece. Overnight is in charming Conques, dotted with attractive, red-ocher houses, at the Htel Sainte Foy. B/D
DAY 14: Friday, July 28 Conques/Le Puy This morning, we depart for Le Puy. This is one of France's most extraordinary sights, with its Romanesque churches, cathedral, and assortment of medieval houses all perched on the peaks of high volcanic pillars. Le Puy was one of the most active cities in the peace movement of the region and in 1182, the site of a remarkable peace confraternity known as the "White Caps". We visit the town's immense Byzantine-influenced Romanesque Cathdrale de Notre-Dame, with its famous Black Madonna. Our visit is enhanced by an informative lecture given by a local expert. We go on to St. Paulein, with its fine Romanesque church and the ruins of the Castle of Polignac. The site of an important peace council, St-Paulein was also known for its healing tradition. Htel Regina B/D
DAY 15: Saturday, July 29 Le Puy/Lyon We depart for Lyon this morning along a beautiful mountain road. One of the oldest cities in France, Lyon was home to the earliest recorded Christian community, including the great millenarian Irenaeus. We will contemplate the last two millennia of Christian history before the tombs of the earliest Gallican martyrs and stroll through the oldest section of town. Grand Hotel Concorde B/D
DAY 16: Sunday July 30 Lyon We begin our full-day excursion with a drive to Tournus, home to the Abbaye de St. Philibert, where the saint's bones can still be viewed, then go on to Cluny, a small town dominated by the ruins of the imposing Ancienne Abbaye St. Pierre et St. Paul. Once the most powerful monastic center in Europe, this Benedictine abbey was founded in 910 by William the Pious. The Cluny monastery and its affiliates played an important role in promoting the peace and truce of God movement in the eleventh century, and the pilgrimage to Santiago de Compostela. Before the construction of St. Peter's in Rome in the sixteenth century, the abbey was the largest church in Europe. Little remains today except for the right arms of the two transepts and the Clocher de l'Eau-Bnite (Holy Water Bell Tower) with its fine figured capitals. The ruins nonetheless manage to suggest the size and majesty of the abbey at its peak. Farewell dinner in town. Grand Hotel Concorde B/D
DAY 17: Monday, July 31 Lyon/Paris/Boston This morning we depart for the airport, where we board our connecting flight through Paris to Boston. B/Inflight Meals