by

Ted Daniels, Ph.D.

Electronic version copyright © Ted Daniels 1997. All rights reserved
Originally published in Millennialism: An International Bibliography by Garland Publishing New York, 1992. Reproduced here by permission.
URL for this article is http://www.

Subject Index
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X/Y Z

A
Abbey of Christ the King 679
Abravenel, Don Isaac (Kabbalist) 616
Abyss, ultimate, in literary fashions 445
Access in recruitment 439
Accommodation
         and symbolic reciprocity 641
         movement's strategies toward 641
Acculturation xxvi, 173, 604
         and revitalization 593
         as evolution 711
         Asian responses to 632
         bilateral 209
         folk belief in 525
         in the service of rebellion 531
         nature of 709
         sacred center motif in 447
         sleeping hero motif in 446
         stress in 711
         universality of 170, 379, 407
Acculturation theory 5, 407, 602,
         inadequacy of 398
         and syncretism 543
Action-patterns, types of 787
Adesina, Muhammad Jumat (Yoruba Mahdi) 215
Adso of Montier-en-Dur (French prophet) 476
Adventists, Caribbean 147
Aesthetic theory 569, 678
Aetherius Society 719
African movements, types of 461
African Orthodox Church 252
Ahmad, Muhammad (Sudanese mahdi) 130
Åkerblom, Maria (Swedish prophet) 103
Al Dajjal (Islamic antichrist) 130
Aladuras, Yoruba 543
Alice Movement 619
Alienation
         and millennialism 382
         motivating factor 786
         negotiation of 577
         vs. anomie 322
Alpha et Omega movement 679
American civil religion 18, 20, 21, 81-83, 293
         defined 19
         theory, critique of 727
Anabaptism 300
Analogies vs. homologies 449
Ananda Cooperative Village 520
Anarchists, Andalusian 348
Animal language and shamanism 589
Animalism
         and sacred ecstasy 232, 234
Anomie 5
Anthropology of experience 446
Antichrist
         controls money 490
         derivation of 477
         European Union and490
         in contemporary society 242, 490
         in medieval dissent literature 418
         myths of 118, 264
Anti-cult movement, bigotry of 487
Antinomianism 768
Antiochus IV (Syrian despot) as Antichrist 447
Anti-structure and ecstasy 508. See also Communitas, Liminality
Apocalypses
         ambiguity of 779
         and utopianism 387
         and Western dualism 14
         as authentic visions 661
         as end-determined fictions 385
         attributes of Jewish 182, 255
         esoteric lore in 118
         generic features of 12, 183, 184
         knowledge in Jewish 306
         literary 217
         nuclear 321
         medieval, and later movements 451
         modern 386, 445
         overview of 185
         Persian influence on Jewish 767
         rhetoric of 748
         science fiction as 748
         secrecy of 12
         traditional 118
         UFO encounters as 574
         Zodiac in 409
Apocalypticism
         American 779
         among missionaries 308
         as source of messianism 306
         in contemporary culture 738
         Jewish 182, 306
Apostasy
         and commitment 72
         defined 626
         process of 367
         social basis of 360
Apostates as deprogrammers 626
Apostles of Infinite Love movement 362
Arianhdit's movement 357
Arnold, Matthew (English author) and modern apocalypses 445
Art, apocalyptic imagery in 478
Artes moriendi 23
Asceticism, millenarian 400
Ashkenazim and millenarism 616
Assembly, The 325
Astrological symbolism in Revelation 409
Astrology 486
         fused with millenarism 156
Atrocity stories
         and deprogramming 644
         as effective polemic 626
Austin, David (American prophet) 196
Authority
         delegation deflects resentment 373
         foreign, legitimizes ideas 461
         Moses's 562
Awakenings, great 480, 481, 498
         diagnosed by millenarism 59
Aztec empire 404
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B
Baalism 13
Babism, millenarism in 638
Baha'i 638
BaKongo (African tribe) 16
Banoenaek, Maria (Timorese spiritist) 127
Baptism as basis of African-American religion 252
Behaviorism 33
         and conversion 736
Belief
         central to legends 204
         closed system of 254, 283, 439
         coherence in 553
         in healing rituals 420
         inconsistency in not problematic 553
         invalidated by explanation 357
         lacks external justification 456
         maintenance of 439
         mass vs. elite 186
         more natural than doubt 640
         nature of 129
         orthodoxy, predictors of 272
         personal relationships and 187
         resiliency of 640
         rejection of 456
         secondary elaboration of 254
         sociological fact of 539, 647, 753
         substantiated by denial 692
         supernatural and childhood experience 646
         systems of 114
         tests of 321, 398, 503, 647
         unconditional 456
Berg, David B. ("Moses David", American prophet) 721
         charisma of 725
Birsa Munda (Indian prophet) 5
Black Coyote (Ghost Dance leader) 391
Black Jews 252
Bo and Peep movement (AKA Heaven's Gate) 42, 44, 89
         defection from 45
Boehm, Jacob (German mystic) 683
Bolsheviks
         ideology 459
         and sexual license 231
Brainwashing xxxi
         absent from NRMs 181
         and evil eye beliefs 323
         as core issue in hostility to NRMs 74
         critique of 55
         ideology of in Anti-Cult movements 126
         ineffectiveness of 364
         rhetoric of 72
         studies of 576
         theory 128, 316
         universal in polemical rhetoric 190
Brethren of the Free Spirit 177, 179, 381, 417
Bridge-building in defection 45
Britain and national destiny 458
British Millerites 97
Brotherhood of the Sun 686
Brown, John (American abolitionist)
influence on tribal peoples 249, 482, 586
Buddhism, soteriology in 462
Bureaucracy
         charismatic 288, 504, 753
         vs. patriarchy 732
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C
Cagoule movement 219
Calvinism as non-millenarian 155
Campbell, Alexander (American reformer) 290
Campbell, Mary (English prophet) 619
Cao Dai movement 340
Cargo
         as salvation 685
         disproportionate value of 647
         fulfills prophecy 636
         irrelevance of 561
Cargo cult "madness" and mythic continuity 446
Cargo cults 93, 391, 470
         as regimes of truth 434
         big man system in 175
         critique of theories of 647
         depend on guilt 141
         emotionalism in 647
         formation process 647
         functionalism fails to account for 371
         history and 446
         history of 162
         hypotheses about whites in 371
         in relation to exchange 134
         paranoia in 604
         political reform and 482
         rationality of 247
         reappearance of following failures 371
         regional unity and 371
         status and 663
         theories of 370
         typology of 364
         western goods in 289
         world renewal motif in 233
Carnival, anti-structure in 509, 734
Catharism, psychopathology of 625
Catholic Apostolic Church 619. See also Irvingites
Change
         personal and social in millenarism 711
         social, as context for NRMs 75
Chanjiri's movement 620
Charisma
         alien to modernity 688
         ambiguity of 429, 542, 732
         antinomianism and 547
         anti-structure and 732
         arises in latency structures 682
         as process 548, 769
         as social construct 268
         as total conviction 484
         as trust 753
         attributes of 688, 769
         becomes tradition 769
         cannibalism and 422
         contexts for the emergence of 62, 688
         conversion and 416
         covenant and 562
         danger and 268
         de-alienation and 62
         defined 622, 726
         dependency and 373
         dilemmas of 373, 375
         epilepsy legitimates 204, 732
         evokes hatred 688
         exclusively sacred 605
         extraordinary needs and 732
         failure of 529, 618
         female 602
         Hasidic 261
         in churches 89
         in communes 775
         in Hasidism 617
         in sects 89
         in traditional societies 753
         index of attributes 138
         instability of 732
         institutional 90, 622

         interactional nature of 155, 592, 753
         irrationality legitimates 482
         kyphotic posture legitimates 105
         literacy and 268, 542
         marginality of 753
         miracles and xxviii, 373
         neutrality of 688
         opposition and 675
         patrimonial authority and 675
         perception of xxviii, 732
         political 226, 605
         potentially destructive 250
         psychopathology of 398
         rationality of 371
         routinization of 675
         situational 688
         spirit possession 178, 422
         self-defeat in 675
         social integration and 658
         sustained by erratic behavior 439, 482, 547
         test of 592
         total devotion and 727
         unpredictability of 688
         vs. deviance 5
Charismatic bureaucracy 288, 504, 753
Charismatic demand, concept of 753
Charismatic leaders as heros 732
Charismatic tradition of origin 769
Cheyenne tribe and the Ghost Dance 303
Children as valid prophets 519
Children of God movement 199, 243, 721
         structural changes in 723
Chilembwe, John (African prophet) 433, 586
         motives of 586
         prophetic career of 586
         suppositious psychology of 586
Chiliasm defined 602
Chitawala-Kitawala movement 620
Cho, Rev. Yonggi (Korean prophet) 170
Chreod defined 423
Christadelphian movement 670
Christianity
         as a "package deal" 308
         as millenarism 273, 365
         diversity in 433
         divisions of early 275
         historical context of earliest 431
         promises of eternal life taken literally 308
         secret lore in 308, 482, 692
Church of Satan movement 10
Church Universal and Triumphant 224
Church-sect typology 89, 116, 206, 294, 577
         attacked 227, 366
         value of 372. See also Yinger, Milton
Churchill, Winston 688
Clarkson, Lawrence (English prophet) 179
Class and power-oriented movements 500
         components of 439
         and maintenance of faith 439
         religion as 356
Cognitive dissonance
         as causative xxvi, 398
         as researcher's problem 640
Cognitive dissonance theory 254, 439, 785
         and secondary elaboration 321
         as mere common sense 187
         critique of 783
Cold War, millenarism in 109
Colonialism xix
         ambiguity of 16
         and displacement 41
Commitment xix
         acculturation and 414
         alienation and 786
         among recruits 786
         as forcing God's hand 482
         as investment 416
         as test of belief 503
         "bridge-burning" as 254, 286, 416
         conversion and 383
         components of 345, 416
         cult formation and 484
         dimensions of 256
         humiliation in 416
         modes of 416
         religion and 284
         sectarian politics and 368
         surrender as 743
         types of 384
Communes, North American 775
Communism
         appeal of 459
         as millennial 384
Communitarianism and demodernization 361
Communitas xx, 508, 695, 696, 698. See also Liminality, Anti-structure
         and pilgrimage 508
         in millenarism 416
Compensation theory
         critique of 219
         devalues religion 287
Compensator theory xxxvii, 35, 36, 648, 650, 653
         critique of 44, 262, 727, 728
Competition in American religion 497
Complex marriage at Oneida 529
Composition, formulaic in Spiritual sermons 585
Comte, Auguste (French philosopher) 121
Concerned Relatives (anti-cult movement) 315
Confraternity of the Kingdom of Christ 679
Consciousness, altered states of in religion 117
Conseilhero movement (AKA Canudos)195, 205, 549
Consensus in communes 775
Consistency in religion 553
Contestado movement 205, 549
Conversion
         perception of passivity in 454
         as attack on tradition 314
         as sudden leap 89
         as total personality change 540
         compensators theory and 649
         critique of process theory 440
         facilitating factors of 758
         follows participation 123
         friendship and 439
         medical model of 72
         motivation theory and 123
         motives for 706
         neurological bases of 425
         organization opposes 524
         personal choice in 454, 664
         problem-solving rhetoric in 439
         process theory 36, 72, 220, 323, 439, 454, 607
         psychological view of 220
         re-socialization in 88
         revision of the past in 42
         rewards of 439
         stages of 91
         studies of 578
         therapeutic value of xviii, 44
         trivial reasons for 687
         universal readiness for 484
         vs. attraction 786
Converts' careers 439
Conviction, therapeutic value of xviii, 711
Coppe, Abiezer (English prophet) career 179
Correspondence, doctrine of in folklore 328
Cosmologies
         African 357, 472, 473
         American 109, 332, 458
         Ghost Dance 249
         indigenous 569
         Joachimist 555
         Maoist 564
         Melanesian 364, 371, 604
         traditional 222
Counterculture
         anomic, and NRMs 679
         communitas in 508
         symbolism in 113
Coups d'etat, sources of 688
Criminalization as legitimating device 491
Crises
         timing of 394
         and recourse to myths 456
Crisis cult, defined 398
Criticism, mutual, at Oneida 529
Cult
         defined 513, 560
         formation of 300, 560
         ideal type of 151
         meaning of 366
Cults
         carriers of cultural "genes" 40
         deception characteristic of 243
         deviance in 560
         polemic against 466
         theories of 371
         typology of 366, 707
         vs. churches 240
         vs. sects 571, 716-718, 722
Cultural theory 483
Culture, Freudian theory of 397
Culture crisis and institutions 228
Culture shock theory 352
Cursillo movement 402
Curve of rising action 647
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D
D'Aurillac, Gerbert (Pope Sylvester II) 244
Dahlén, Ruth (Swedish mystic) 380
Date-setting as heresy 587
De la Vega, Garcilaso (Inca author) 709
Death
         as relative deprivation 574
         meaningful and rebellion 303, 482, 586
Defensiveness and encapsulated groups 628
Déima movement 291
         history of 391
DeLaurence, William Lauron (American magician) 238
Demonic element in religion 448
Denominational affiliation and cognitive organization 555
Denominations
         and religiosity 311, 312
         as social type 372
         vs. sects and cults 465
Deobandi movement 24
Deprivation. See also Relative deprivation
         and conversion 296
         necessary but insufficient cause 294
         types of 294
Deprogramming
         and atrocity stories 644
         and witch hunts 627
         as brainwashing 323
         supported by Anti-Cult movement 126
Deviance
         allocations of 246, 218
         as movement strategy 497
         as self-definition 497
Dialectic
         as closed system 459
         as explanatory principle 459
Diggers 49, 210
Dipanagara, Prince (Javanese prophet) 3
Disaster
         as millennial context 17, 58, 638

         syndrome 58, 713
Disciples in relation to leaders 301, 688
Disconfirmation, strategies for dealing with 413
Dissent, religious and millennial prophecy 418
Divination
         defined 699
         principles of 356
Divine Light Mission 220, 265, 554
Divinity, acceptable claims to 739
Doctrine
         appeal of logical coherence in 73
         as unrealistic 783
Donatist movement 131, 132
         and religious suicide 580
Drama
         curve of rising action in 300
         millennium as xxix, 647
Dramatization as legitimating device 491
Dualism
         in belief systems xxx
         innovative in apocalypses 306
Duvalier, François and Jean-Claude (Haitian dictators) 688
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E
Eckhardt, Meister (German mystic) 683
Ecology movement, apocalypticism in 600, 748
Economics in Melanesian cosmology 364
Edwards, Jonathan (American divine) 136, 657
         millennialist thought of 656
Egalitarian politics, contradictions in 507
Elema tribe 175
Encounter movement 336
         ahistoricity of 757
         and Pietism 527
End of the world, images of, as schizophrenic 430
English Panacea Society 619. See also Southcott, Joanna
Ephemeral movements, American 377
Epp, Claas Jr. (Mennonite prophet) 76
Eschatology
         African-American 248
         and types of religion 52
         Christian; surveyed 137
         consonant with modernity 684
         ecology movement's 600
         early Christian 27
         fundamentalist, and nuclear arms 735
         Hasidic 597
         Islamic 635, 674
         Jehovah's Witnesses' 460, 544, 785
         Jewish 319, 597
         liberal 494
         Marxist 782
         medieval 565
         Nation of Islam's 261, 460
         necessity of xxix, 385
         new-world pioneers' 236
         progressivist 97, 137
         schizophrenic 430
         types of 106, 353
Eschaton equal to creation 403
est as moral mediator 681
Evangelism, growth of through retention 95
Expressiveness as salvation 753
Extended families and millenarism 546
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F
Failure
         as success in millennial thought 439
         cultural repertoires of 783
         explanation of 783
Faith
         and face 413
         crisis in among junior clergy 79
         maintenance of 439
Family of Love 39, 518. See also Manson, Charles, Manson Family
Fang (African tribe) 16
Fard, D.W. (American prophet) 94
Farm, The 336
Father Divine Peace Mission 139, 245, 252
Feminism, sources of 423
Fieldwork
         difficulties in 453, 581
         methodology 573
Fifth Monarchy Men 210
Fin de siecle, history of 603
Folk belief
         Mormon 191
         not precluded by church membership 310
         systems of 107
Folk ideas and traditional cosmology 222
Folk psychiatry, overview of 388
Folk religion
         attributes of 749
         defined 774
         vs official 111
Folklore
         and millennialism 568
         and scientific fact 358
         and social change 568
         Christian elements in 133
         Neo-Platonism in 328
Formulaic composition 585
Fourth Philosophy movement 431
Fox, Robert (English prophet) 44
Franciscan Spirituals 476
         and millennialism 552
Frank, Jacob (Jewish prophet) 598
Fresh contact 46
Freud's views of religion 235
Full Gospel Central Church 170
Functionalist theories
         defects in 371
         in the sociology of religion 153
Fundamentalism
         Christian 46, 115
         Islamic 24
Funeral Rites and millennialism 108
Fusion in ritual and theology 68
Future, the. See also Time, Cosmologies
         in African cosmology 472
         in Joachimist cosmology 555
         nature of 574
Futurology, psychology of 471
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G
Garrison, William Lloyd (American abolitionist) 302
Garvey, Marcus (Jamaican prophet) 491
         influence on black movements 731
Gedatsu-Kai movement 223
Gemeinde defined 675
Gender roles, inappropriate 103
Ghandi's charismatic tactics 548
Ghost Dance 157, 249, 258, 376, 496, 703,
         antecedents of 645
         as quest for power 461
         BIA and 501
         cosmology of 249
         cultural significance of 419
         history of 391
         Navajo tribe 343, 534
         prophetic process and 532
         revives tradition 419
         Pawnee tribe 534
         Sioux tribe 534
         recollections of 303
         suppositious Mormon influence on 174
         white views of 534
Glossolalia. See also Trance
         and personality "improvement" 450
         and trance 369
         as performance 363, 369
         commitment and 345
         cross-cultural similarities in 298, 299
         guiding myth in 345
         interpretation of 345
         learning of 121
         not pathological 570
         psychology of 570
         temporal process of 300
         typology of 469
Gnosticism
         and totalitarianism 733
         in early Jewish literature 182
         vs. Christianity 301
God, western ideas of 295
Grace, Daddy (American prophet) 12
Grid and group typology 564
Guru Maharaj Ji (Indian guru) 265
Gush Emunim movement 30
Gusii (tribe) 768
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H
Handsome Lake (Seneca leader) 703
         and mazeway resynthesis 712
         prophetic career 712
         Quaker influence on 712
Hasidism 740
Hau Hau movement 3. See also Pai Maire
Healers and patients 420
Healing as legitimate medicine 214
Hegel, G.W.F. 259
Heresiology as invariant polemic 190
Heresy
         and dissent 418
         as choice 710
         as treason to God 710
         impurity of 689
         politics of 710, 784
Heretics, attributes of 689
Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn 679
Himes, Joshua V. (American movement leader) 26, 378
         as abolitionist 302
Hinduism as world religion 614
Hippie movement, contradictions in 508
         and totalism 508
History
         meaninglessness of 607
         in the rhetoric of NRMs 757
Hitler, Adolf 122
         as charismatic figure 268, 502, 548
Hoa Hoa movement 340
Holiness Church and rituals of spiritual growth 395
Holy Apostles Church 65
Holy Water movement 392
Homeorhesis, defined 423
Honmichi movement 623
Hope and imagination 211
Huichol tribe 508
Human Potential movement
         as millennial 384
         as shamanism 659
Huniyan, cult of 526
Hussites, history 381
Huxley, Aldous 557
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I
Ideal Types, sterility of 73
Identity work 395
Ideology
         as cultural system 283
         as pathological 283
         sociology of 621
Idiosyncracy credit 641
Individualism in ideas of death 23
Influence, demographic measures of 739
Influence, religious and interaction 745
Information and structure 449
Inquisition, history of 689
Institutionalization Introduction
         in modernity 362
         problems of 524
Institutions
         and "latency structures" 682
         anti-institutional 558
         defined 88
         interdependency of 67
         legitimization of 88
Integration, social levels of 658
Intelligentsia as movement leaders 682. See also Peasants
Interest theory 283
International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON) 624
Inversion, symbolic as corrective feedback 31
Iroquois masking tradition 105
Irvingite movement 11. See also Catholic Apostolic Church
         and relative deviancy 577
Islam 10, 13
         African 357
         contexts of renewal in 24
         seen as cult 466
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J
"Janiformity" and world renewal 231
Jehovah's Witnesses 73
         and doctrinal change 665
         and Nazis 389
         in the Caribbean 362
         influence on African movements 433
         revise prophecies 335
Jesus 44
         as millenarian prophet 274
         second coming of, in Islam 130
Jesus People movement 4, 46
         as research subjects 581
Jewish Defense League 563
Jews, Messianic 563
Jihads in American history 423
Joachim of Fiore 242, 475, 476, 565
         influence of 567
         third dispensation 242, 476
Job, Book of 306
John Frum movement 233, 753
         history of 391
Jones, Jim 297, 572, 580. See also Peoples' Temple, Suicide, religious
Jonestown 203. See also Peoples' Temple, Suicide, religious
         antecedents of 580
         caused by brainwashing 314
         wide awareness of 56
Judaism 13
Jung-Stilling, Johann Heinrich (Austrian novelist) 76
Jurieu, Pierre (French prophet) 210
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K
Kakistes See Kimbangu
Kaliai tribe 188
Kanwama's movement 620
Karma, nature of 553
Keresan pueblo 334
Kerista movement 336
,A NAME=Kimbangu>Kimbangu movement 41
         history of 391
Kimbangu, Simon (African prophet) 16, 753
Kinesthetics and social movements 602
King Ludwig the German 77
King Philip II as Inca savior 709
King, Dr. George (English prophet) 719
Krishnamurti 679
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L
La Palma Sola movement 362
Lactantius (church father) 476
Lakwena movement 515
Latency structures 682
Leader
         begins revitalization 711
         interdependent with movement 688
Leary, Timothy (American guru) 408
Lee, Mother Ann (English prophet) 619. See also Shakers
         as the second coming 266
Legend
         belief and 204
         factual basis of 201
Legitimacy
         deep vs. consensual 734
         pluralistic 717
Legitimization, preparation as 364
         problems of 124
Lenin, V.I. as secular messiah 502, 688
Levellers 210
Levites 34
Levitt, Samuel (utopian novelist) 285
Liberation, symbolic, in cargo cults 446
Liminality. See also Communitas
         concept of 695, 696
         in millennialism 143, 416
         sustains a movement 317
Litch, Josiah (American prophet) 6
Lofland, John critique of methodology 29, 189, 453. See also Network theory
Love, instability of 775
Lovebombing (Unification Church recruitment technique) 88, 440
Loyola, Ignatius and role theory 380
LSD movement 408
Luria, Isaac (Kabbalist) 740
Lyndon B. Johnson movement 145
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M
Machiavelli, Nicolo and anti-utopianism 259
Magic 10
         belief in 687
         essential to salvation 752
Mahdi (Islamic messiah) 130
Mahikari movement 362
Maji Maji movement 5, 357
Mamaia movement 561
Manhattan Project 7
Manson, Charles 39, 518. See also Family of Love.
         and mysticism 776
Mansren movement 233
Marginality
         and legitimization 551
         and the prophetic career 586
         innovates 697
         symbols of 221
Martyrdom and rebellion 586
Marx, Karl 297, 688
Marxism
         as inversion of Roman Catholicism 782
         as religion 294, 295, 782
Mather, Cotton (American divine) 657
Matswa, Andre (African prophet) 41
Mazeway 44, 666
         and learning theory 449
         and role theory 380
         concept of 711, 712
         critique of 58
         disintegration and shock 713
         resynthesis 712
        McCarthy, Eugene: movement as compromise sect 577
Mechanic preachers 210
Meher Baba movement 19
Melville, Herman 86
Men in Black and UFOlogists 583
Mennonites, Russian 76
Mesmerism as source of social anomalies 61
Message, religious, concreteness of 524
         necessarily relevant 524
Messiahs as alien 619
Messianic idea, history of 575
Messianism
         Brazilian 154, 547
         defined 403
         in relation to mysticism 740
         Inca 531
         Jewish 85, 598
         religious vs. revolutionary 225
         types of 546
Methodism basis of African-American religion 252
Millenarism
         a category of failure 209
         absent in Mennonitism 76
         absurd 741
         African 433
         ambiguous 259, 400, 502, 670
         American 128, 458, 467
         American revivals and 639
         as heresy 259
         as paradigm shift 396
         as political 769
         as pre-political 549, 670
         as value-added process 633
         awakenings and 59
         basis of American Civil religion 333, 423
         Brazilian 205, 545, 569
         Ceylonese 462
         collectivity and 727
         contexts of 602
         creativity of 78, 502
         defined 177, 329, 403, 588, 602, 672, 726
         diagnostic of awakenings 59
         emotionalism in 670
         English Puritanism and 176, 400
         factors in 177
         French sources of American 208
         general problems in 58
         healing and anti-witchcraft in 461
         in American cosmology 109, 332, 458
         in the English civil war 339, 759
         inconsistent beliefs in 196
         indigenous 462
         indistinct from revolution 596
         Japanese 104, 623
         Javanese 704
         Jewish 616
         medieval 178
         Mormon 119, 523
         not marginal 610
         overview of studies of 144, 601, 602, 634
         political activism and 400
         primitive vs. modern 638
         primordial time in 607
         progressivism and 701
         psychopathology and Introduction, 58, 584
         Puritan, as historiography 176
         radicalism and 176
         rationality of 371
         recapitulates history 143
         religious vs. revolutionary 505
         revivals and 59, 87, 270
         Russian and Bolshevism 504
         social context of 219
         subordination in 593
         sustained by mundane events 439
         system of symbolic action 207
         tradition and 424
         typology of 502, 670
         ungeneralizable 371
         universality of 292
         utopianism and 58, 329, 400
         vs. demotic religion 749
         vs. nationalism 341
Millennium
         ambiguity of 155
         as counterculture 613
         contexts of Introduction
         failure of 261
         Judaeo-Christian ideas of 702
         liminality in 143
         nature of 143
         restores creation 230
         transition between orders 65
Miller, William (American prophet)
         as abolitionist 302
         career of 213, 378
         self-doubts 378
Millerism 15, 25, 97
         Abolitionism and 302
         British 97
         defense of 516
         demography of 587
         fanaticism in 606
         heresy in 213
         history of 25, 97, 147
         in relation to Adventism 149
         insanity in 522
         modern propaganda in 587
         opposition to 643
         orthodoxy of 587, 591
Miracles, manipulated 753
Mission des Noirs. See Kimbangu
Missionaries
         ideas of in Melanesia 371
         promise material reward 308
Mita movement 362
Mnao, Juliana (Timorese spiritist) 127
Modernization
         and religion Introduction
         defined 588
Monasticism
         as rebellion 260, 506
         history of 260
Monetary system controlled by Antichrist 490
Money
         and millenarism 143
         and unitary value 588
Monotheism and secularization 588
Moon, Sun Myung (Korean prophet) 57, 126, 170, 491, 582, 666. See also Unification Church
Moorish Science Temple of America 252
Morality and deviance mutually definitive 218
Morality theories, critique of 308
Moravians 210
Mormonism 14, 191
         as modern religion 216
         as unamerican and hyper-american 342
Motifs
         acclamation 748
         amulets 515, 563
         ancestor-worship 464
         Angel Pope 566
         apocalyptic 184
         archaic 305
         axis mundi 232
         Bible, first page removed 692
         book, divine, secrecy of 692
         brainwashed appearance 43
         computer ("The Beast") as Antichrist 490
         conversion 437
         cosmic anxiety 619
         culture-hero 423
         el monte as generalized home 464
         end of the world as political symbol 150
         fire guards paradise 232
         "43ism" in Millerite belief 213
         from Revelation in Nazism 122
         going home 464
         golden age, Chinese 110
         Götterdämmerung 708
         Guinée as generalized home 464
         identity 248, 457
         in black nationalism 100
         inversion, in carnival, festivals etc. 13
         journey 693
         king as savior 709
         Last Judgement in Western art 10
         Last World Emperor 418
         leveling of mountains 432
         literacy and secrets 692
         Luanda as generalized home 464
         medieval and modern folklore 669
         migration 2
         national destiny, British 458
         papal Antichrist 242
         portentous symmetry 267
         powerful secret knowledge 692
         primordial purity 607
         rebel angels 306
         religious defined 89
         religious in Marxism 782
         resentment 502
         return and history 230
         return in Afro-American song 464
         return of culture hero 156, 167, 403, 446, 447, 452
         revenge 547, 685
         sacred center 447
         secret Christian lore 692
         sexual in religions 32
666 490
         surprise in cargo cults 289
         T'ai P'ing 611
         third dispensation in Nazism and Communism 242
         thirty-six just men 598
         ultimate abyss 445
         unchanging apocalyptic 748
         withdrawal 2, 382
         women as sources of evil 463
         world renewal 231
         world renewal in schizophrenia 181
         world reversal 172, 267, 463, 631
         world-rejection 80
         wrong thinking 104
         year reversal 631
Motivations, uniform and demagoguery 715
Motives
         and religious membership 366
         mixed in religion 524
Mt. Sinai Holy Church of America 252
Movements
         and change Introduction
         appeal of judged 786
         as fads 758
         as rectification 636
         context for charisma 688
         drama in 421
         development of 344
         growth of 688
         interdependency of 193
         power-oriented 500
         reasons for failure of 521
         religious, characteristics of 506
         social implosion in 727
         types of 502, 752
         values vs. survival in declining 489
         within organizations 777
Muspilli (medieval poem) 77
Mystagogue 719
Mystical experience
         and personal religion 354
         attributes of 557
         types of 557
         vs. prophetic 677
Mystical groups, sociology of 366
Mysticism
         and evil 776
         in relation to messianism 740
         Jewish 597
         sociological views of 89
Mystics, medieval as neurotics 493
Myth-dream, concept of 141
Myths
         and rebellion 586
         and ritual 488
         as records of millenarism 711, 714
         biological bases of 194
         charismatic authority and 750
         culture-bringer and prophetic careers 399
         discrepant reality in 283
         guiding Introduction, 601
         in Brazilian millenarism 510
         incongruities as keys to 636
         legitimization of 456
         nature of 409
         Native Americans as lost ten tribes 119
         Nero as Antichrist 477
         of the return of the dead 233
         origin of peyote 557
         performance of and power 607
         recourse to in crisis 194
         religious as last resort 380
         structural analysis of 412
         Tiamat 118
         twentieth century as especially critical time 385
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N
Naked cult 231, 234
Narcissism among cultists 528
Nasser, Gamel 688
Nathan of Gaza (Sabbatean leader) 783
Nation of Islam 94, 248, 731
         eschatology of 261
National Rifle Association Introduction
         as conservative movement 294
Native American Church
         history of 556
         new interpretation of Christianity 692. See also Peyotism, Myths.
Nativism
         defined 435
         19th-century American 282
         syncretism in 407
         typology of 435
         western 435
Navajo tribe 2
         and the Ghost Dance 343, 534
Naziism 122, 288
         and Christian sects 389
         millennial 259
Near-death experience as prophetic vision 482, 574, 711, 712
         and conversion effect 778
         medieval and modern compared 778
Negativity, objects of 685
Network theory Introduction, 19, 38, 39, 624
         and conversion 642. See also Lofland, John
Neurobiology
         and prophets 690
         and ritual 700
New Harmony (American socialist community) 521
New Left and relative deviancy 577
New religious consciousness theory
         refuted 486
Newton, Sir Isaac 257
Nirvana transcends God 776
Nixon, Richard 57
Nixon, William (English prophet) 612
Noise, The (Melanesian movement) 482
Noyes, John Humphrey (American prophet) 61, 77, 423, 529
         biographical sketch of 350
NRMs
         American, overview of 487
         and world order 772
         brainwashing absent 181
         characteristics of 39
         client centered 100
         common features of 780
         counterculture and 681
        crisis of community and 180
         cultural hostages 757
         distribution of 655
         ethics in 680
         gender roles in 8, 9
         heuristic value of 53, 724
         legitimacy problems in 124
         ideas of history 757
         importance of 770
         in Nigeria 474
         in the 1960's 152
         legitimacy issue 59
         media and 626, 757
         membership as deviant 35
         moral accountability in 101
         narcissistic 189, 744
         novelty of 758
         new religious consciousness in refuted 486
         opposition and conflict of interest 125, 126
         paranoid leadership in 727
         pre-political 588
         psychiatry and 278
         psychological dependence absent in 277
         redundant populations and 588
         rhetoric of 757
         significance of 660
         social hostility towards 74
         sociological stereotyping of 73
         sociology of 34, 35, 36, 53, 73, 578, 579
         surveys of 99, 771
         threaten the middle class 190
Nuclear Death Cult 7
Numerology
         and dating the End 631
         folk 267
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O
Obere Okaimi Church 3
Obreros conscientes (Spanish anarchist leaders) 348
Occult
         and millennial progressivism 479
         and secularization of the demonic 683
         as source of modernity 683
         as technological alternative 454
         as technology of esoteric lore 683
         Cagoule movement and 683
         Carbonari movement and 683
         conversion to 454
         establishment 468
         Freemasons and 683
         groups, attributes of 683
         Illuminati and 683
         Ku Klux Klan and 683
         literature 468
Négritude movement and 683
         New Age and 279
         playfulness of 687
         reasons for conversion to 687
         romanticism and 683
         revival of 229
         revival and millenarism 279
         Sinn Fein and 683
         Surrealism and 683
         Symbolist movement and 683
         Young Italy and 683
Old Believers and religious suicide 580
Olivi, Peter John (Franciscan leader) 140
Oneida community, failure of 529
Oneiromancy in folklore 328
Open marriage, sources of 423
Opposition, arousal of 188
Order of the Star in the East 679
Organizations, movements in 332
Origin, charismatic tradition of 769
Ouija, cult of 560
Owen, John (English socialist) 210
Return to top P
Padre Cicero movement 154, 205, 545, 549
Pai Maire movement 5. See also Hau Hau
Paliau (Melanesian prophet) 391, 482, 586
         marginality of 482
Paliau's movement (New Fellow Fashion) 482, 586
Papahurikia movement 561
Paradigm shift theory and millenarism 269
Paradise
         ideas of Introduction
         myths of 232
         presence of, and cargo cults 257
Paranoid ethos 604
         in cargo cults 604
         rationality of, in colonial societies 586
Parker, Quanah (American prophet) 556
]Past, revision of in conversion 416
Patronage and Brazilian movements 549
Paulsen, Norman (American prophet) 686
Pawnee tribe and the Ghost Dance 534
Peace Mission movement 63
Peasants, politically sophisticated 58, 431, 596. See also Intelligentsia
Peli movement 470
Pentecostalism 12, 17, 349
         and socialization to central values 202
         apocalyptic prophesy in 402
         Catholic, history of 330
         in a Keresan pueblo 334
         networks in 517
         structural properties of 286
         survey of 349
Peoples' Temple 169, 373, 572. See also Jones, Jim, Jonestown.
         as postapocalyptic 314
         as total institution 314
         sanity in 572
         sexual degradation in 588
         use of capitalist tactics 315
Perfectionism 61, 423
         prefigured in Ranter doctrine 77
Performance
         in healing 420
         theories of Introduction
Peter Principle in religious organizations 524
Peyotism, North American 359. See also Native American Church
Pilate, Pontius (Roman procurator) 121
Pilgrimage, exploration as 447
         metaphor of history 567
Pluralism and success of movements 325
Plymouth Brethren 619
Poma de Ayala, Felipe Guaman (Spanish author) 709
Popular religion, American 749
Post-millenarism 135, 619
         and American ideology 559
         contradictions in 499
         defined 329
         doctrine of 200
         persistence of 559
Predestination, folk ideas of 600
Prediction
         limits to 603
nature of 574
Pre-millenarism 135, 148, 619
Primal Therapy movement 336
Process Church of the Final Judgment 39
Progress as anti-Christian 776
Progressivism
         and millenarism 390, 701
         based on folk ideas 530
         unmeasurable goals of 558
Prophecy
         American interpretations of 135
         apocalyptic in early Christianity 676
         as dramatic dialogue 677
         consequences of failure 787
         constraints on 146
         failure of 670
         forged 519
         Hebrew, as a profession 146
         Islamic 50
         Jewish, modern versions of 12
         legitimization of 482
         nature of 444
         not disconfirmable 787
         performance of 595
         political nature of 444
         popular, and legend 612
         popular, and propaganda 612
         pseudepigraphy in 28
         rhetoric of 28
         secondary elaboration of 15, 206, 335
         social model of 539
         types of 89
         vs. science 102
         vs. mystical experience 677
Prophet Dance 645. See also Ghost Dance
Prophet, Elizabeth Clare (American bore) 224
Prophet, Hebrew, vs. Egyptian vizier 47
Prophetic careers 76
Prophetic movements as creative 403
Prophetic process and the Ghost Dance 532
Prophets
         as alienated 502
         as paranoid 397
         attributes of Hebrew 146
         children as 519
         emergence of 58
         Hebrew 11, 90, 737
         Hebrew, and trance 550
         Hebrew, as neurotic 550
         marginality of Introduction, 205
         nature of Introduction
         not necessarily charismatic 444
         peripheral 550
         reasons for failure of 50
         self-doubt 50, 378
         social placement of 28
         types of 760
         vs. leaders 688
Proselytization strategies and tactics 439
Protean man, theory of 361, 428
Protestantism
         apocalypticism in 401
         popular 241
Proudhon, P.J. (French socialist) 297
Psychological analysis of cultists 212
Psychopathology theory 296, 316, 435, 584, 629
         critique of 17, 51, 145, 219, 250, 272, 337, 693, 786
         tested 644
Puritans 86
         as political revolutionaries 729
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Q
Quakers 49
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R
Radicalism 102, 417
Rajneeshee movement 89, 166, 615
Ranters 49, 179, 210
Rastafarianism 731
         history and ideology 362
         marijuana sacrament 692
Rationalization theory, critique of 746
Reagan, Ronald (American actor) 753
Realism, symbolic 581
Reality, 176
         as socially constructed 88
         competing versions of 88
Rebirthing movement 336
Recruitment, access in 439
Recruits, commitment among 786
Reductionism 678
         critique of 54, 569, 672
         forced 573
Redundancy, human 588
Relative deprivation theory Introduction, 2, 5, 12, 35, 48, 58, 602, 769
         and Pentecostalism 349
         and perceptions of social structure 500
         circularity of 720
         critique of 564, 601, 645, 678, 720
         devalues religion 287
         inadequacy of 347
         tautology of 287. See also Deprivation
Religion
         as rationalization 746
         attributes of 456, 587
         cause of change 287
         competencies of 769
         competition in American 497
         conjectural origins of 335
         conservative 287
         consistency in 553
         demotic 749
         Durkheimian view, inadequacy of 410
         failure of 84
         imitation legitimates 105
         interaction with socialism 350
         innovates in society 682
         inquiry in 427
         interdependent with politics 143, 688
         integrative 322
         merely expressive 102
         monopoly destroyed 91
         overview of Native American 703
         public rhetoric of 13
         rationalization of 69
         reactionary 773
         source of social innovation 682
         stabilizes society 682
         stories and 326
         supernatural definitive of 769
         transformative 322
         types of 322, 730
         ultimate meaning in 648
         varying emphases in 455
         vs. "new" religion 322
         vs. hypotheses 456
         worship in, and methodology 691
Resocialization in millenarism 416
Revelation
         defined 699
         neurological bases of 425
         transforms the prophet 482
Revelation, Book of analyzed 251
Revitalization theory 5, 711
Revitalizations
         anti-feminism in 463
         pagan, in Russia 463
         stages of 19
         structure of 700
         vs. shamanism 659
Revivals, American, and millenarism 639. See also Awakenings
Revolution
         and millennialism 58
         context of 198
         English, history of 339
Rewards of conversion 439
Rhetoric, anti-cult 190, 563, 626, 739
Ritual
         as controlled dysfunction 363
         as performance 284
         characteristics of 68
         defined 100
         faulty categories of 78
         legitimate reversal in 734
         marginals innovate 697
         mechanization of 524
         musical communication in 464
         neurobiology in 700
         percussion and transition 511
         sociology of 112
         trance and 426
Rivial, Leon (Allan Kardec) magician 393
Role orientation, defined 115
Role suction 58
         and charismatic demand 753
Role theory 43, 380, 747
         and conversion 123
         and glossolalia 351
Roosevelt, Franklin D. 688
Rosencreutz, Christian (CRC) legendary prophet 679
Rosicrucian order 286
Return to top S
Sabbatai Zevi (Jewish messiah) 599, 740, 783
Sabbatean movement 599, 740
Sacralization
         defined 70
         of society 514
Sacred, double nature of 447
Sacrifice, self-validating 188
St. Augustine 131
         as Manichean 260
St. Paul 44
         conversion of Introduction
Saint-Simon, C.H.R. (French socialist) 297
Saint-Simonism as charismatic movement 375
Salafiyya movement 10
"Salesman"
         as problematic Introduction
         as secondary movement leader 64
Salmon, Joseph (English prophet) 179
Salvation
         and reciprocity 415
         worldly, in millenarism 670
Santa Claus as popular symbol 111
Satanists 495. See also Church of Satan
Savonarola 476
Saya San movement 5
Science
         and religious feeling 746
         Communism's underpinning 459
         replaces religion 295
         vs. religion 356
Science Fiction 171
Scientists 7
Scientific bricolage 366
Scientology
         in relation to the community 325
         influences on 746
         transformation from cult to sect 718
Scripture produced to replace the Bible 692
Sebastianismo (Portuguese messianism) 510
Secondary elaboration 485, 785
Secrecy
         conspicuous 416
         religious, and tribal peoples 692
Sectarian meaning systems 89
Sects. See also Cults
         and social tension 651
         culture accommodates to 371
         puritanism of 294
         societies accommodate to 372
         theory of 89, 554
         typology of 751
Secularization
         arguments for 754
         consequences of 688
         self-limiting 36, 652
         theory 727
         theory, critique of 206, 313
Seekers and Seeking Introduction, 42, 52
         attributes of 439
         entails undefined goals 42
         process of 42
Seizures unite movement 482
Self-description and religious paradigms 694
Self-stigmatization as legitimating device 491
Seneca nation 712
Sephardim and millenarism 616
Serrurier, Pierre (English millenarian) 270
Seventh-Day Adventists 362, 619, 675
Sexual license
         accusations of 81, 190, 768
         and world renewal 231
         in millennial movements 143
Shakers 619
         chastity among 266
         doctrine 266
         eschatology 266
         history 266
         importance of 770
         influences on 210
Shaman
         career parallels prophet's 19, 436
         vs. seer 436
Shamanism 422
         animal language in 589
         charisma and 422, 630
         epilepsy and 732
         dramatic techniques in 168
         glossolalia and 469
         hallucinogens and 324
         in Human Potential movement 659
         in Japanese millenarism 104
         paradise in 232
         schizophrenia and 630
Sicarii movement 431
Sierra Club Introduction
Signatures, doctrine of in folklore 328
Signs of the End
         always present 492
         contemporary 304, 467
Sikhism 637
Simon Magus (legendary magician) and esoteric Christianity 692
Sio Vili movement 561
Sioux tribe and the Ghost Dance 534
Smith, Joseph (American prophet
         as culture hero 423
         biography of 280
Social change
         inadequate predictor of movements 772
         ideology of 328
         theory 682
Social construction of reality theories 88
         reviewed 267
Social Contract vs. kingdom of God 259
Social implosion 727
Social order, transmission of 88
Social organizations, movements in 777
Social structure theory 219
Socialism
         and religion 297, 521
         American, history of 521
Societas Rosicruciana in Anglia 679
Society, sacralization of 514
Sociology
         constituents of 578
         historical 158
Sociology of religion 654
         as study of error 318
         overview of 514
         stereotyping in 37
Southcott, Joanna (English prophet) 355, 619
Space in typologies of religion 89
Spirit possession and charisma 422
Spiritualism
         argot in 781
         attributes of 457
         cross-cultural comparison of 457
         Puerto Rican 393
         Timorese 127
Stella Matutina Order 286
Storefront Churches, black, as revitalizations 327
Story movement 188
Strain theory 17, 37, 283
Stress, individual vs. social 711
Structures, mediating 92
Subjectivity, socialization of 336
Sufi movement 24
Suicide
         and opposition 217, 314, 315
         hastens redemption 315
religious 580
Supernatural definitive of religion 769
Swedenborg, Emmanuel (Swedish prophet) 44
Symbols
         and cross-level congruity of meaning 283
         and marginal innovators 697
         nature of 409
         religious 32
         in the Human Potential Movement 659
Syncretism
         and revitalization 711
         creativity in Introduction, 63
         critique of 543
         denies innovation 287
         in African movements 41, 667, 768
         in black religion 338
         in Caribbean movements 362
         in religion 309
         identification with place in 41
         Jewish 767
         mediated identity in 474
         varies with time 404
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T
Taiping Rebellion 110
         effectiveness of 596
Teilhard de Chardin, Pierre (French theologian) 235, 748, 776
Tenshi-kotai-jingu-kyo (Dancing Religion) 413
Thatcher, Margaret 753
Theories congruent with success of movements 672
Theosophy movement 679
Therapy
         in millennialism and institutions 416
         theories of 6
Thomas of Erceldoune (English prophet) 452
Time. See also Cosmologies
         conceptions of 411
         foreshortened 564
         in Melanesian cosmology 371, 604
         in poetry 385
         linear in millenarism 670
         primordial in millenarism 607
Timor, spiritism in 127
Tnevnoc cult 124
Tokoyo no Kami movement as cargo cult 239
Townsend movement 489
Tradition
         and Javanese millenarism 705
         and messianism 549
         and millenarism 569
         not opposed to modernity 309
Trance
         and collectivism 668
         and glossolalia 298
         home as metaphor of 464
         in millennialism 117
         neurological bases of 425, 426
         techniques of 426
         types of 117
Transcendental Meditation 35
Transcendentalism and mysticism 557
Trends, cultural 96
Tupi-Guaraní tribe 236, 502
Two Moons (Cheyenne chief) 303
Typologies
         inadequacy of Introduction, 392
         models of 392
         of movements 637, 330, 727, 772
         of religion 227, 322
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U
UFO encounters as apocalypses 574
Unification Church Introduction, 18, 19, 51, 52, 55, 57, 123, 126, 170, 439. See also Moon, Sun Myung
         apostasy from 644
         as American Civil Religion 582
         dogma 666
         failures to recruit 24
         in relation to the community 325
         "lovebombing" in 88, 673
         recruitment techniques 88, 673
         synthesism in 541
         theology of 16
         turnover rate 72
United House of Prayer for All People 252
Utopian literature 171
         and apocalypse 387
         as fairy tales 287
Utopias
         and millennialism Introduction, 259, 329
         and socialization 607
         as fairy tales 387
         characteristics of 387
         socialist 521
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V
Values
         charisma of 769
         normative in attacks on NRMs 320
Vedanta as satanic 776
Visionaries, pseudonymity of 184
Visions
         automatic 712
         as near-death experience 712
         conversion and 711
         element of story Introduction
         in apocalypses 661
         psychotherapy and 594, 711
         recital as performance 482
         shaman trances and 301
         shock and 711
         social value of 662
         structure of 711
         validated by unlikely visionaries 484
         vs. religious paranoia 711
Voodoo, attributes of 362
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W
Wahabiyyah movement 24
Wapi (Manus visionary) 482
Watts, Alan (American mystic) 557
Weber, Max 62, 89, 226, 310
         charisma theory 375, 688
         critique of 73
Weissenberg, Herr (German healer) 528
Wesley, John and role theory 380
West, the, insatiability of 629
Whiston, William (follower of Newton) 257
White Bull (Cheyenne chief) 303
White, Ellen G. (American prophet) 262, 619, 675
Whitman, Walt 557
Wilson, Jack 281. See also Ghost Dance, Wovoka
Wirikuta tribe, pilgrimage of 509
Wisdom literature, attributes of Jewish 182
Witchcraft
         accusations of 495
         and charisma 422
         and frustration 495
Witnessing, researchers' resistance to 573
Women
         and relative deprivation theory 421
         in movements 22, 177, 421
         Mormon and visions 120
         sexually deprived 493
         sources of evil 463
Woodstock as communitas 508
Work, Melanesian ideas of Europeans' 371, 692
World Messianity movement 317
Wovoka (Ghost Dance founder) 501
         as marginal prophet 281
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X
Y
Yakan movement 357
Yali's movement 142
Yaruro tribe 404
Year 1000
         as the millennium 244, 263
         panic of 244, 492
Year 2000 14
         as date of the End 261, 684
Yinger, Milton and typologies of religion 116, 577.         See also Church-sect typology
Young, Brigham (Mormon leader) 423
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Z
Zayn (failed Muslim prophet) 50
Zealots 121, 431
Zen Buddhism as satanic force 776